Sample No. 1
I would like to thank you for giving me the opportunity to write a few words about my desired program and my future prospects. I have successfully completed my matriculation and intermediate with a scoring of 82% and 58% respectively.
I have always shown willingness and keen interest in my existing and new subject matter. Along with that, academic skills have been an important consideration to me and I have a good understanding of them. I am interested in business studies because one has a greater chance to explore a variety of subjects. Also it will polish my academic skills and will provide me opportunity to develop skills in the area of business that can be applied in many different situations. This is a turning point of my career and I want to give it a great start and in that case I think Williams Business College in Australia is a very good choice. Its diploma of business administration is a very popular program and is in accordance with my requirements. As the college promises good career outcomes this program satisfies me very much. Also I will have a chance for further study in business degree. As I want to do my bachelors degree after this in some top level university in Australia.
Australian education system has a very good reputation and assures quality education. Also it is a safe country with multicultural and a welcoming environment.
Another reason for choosing Australia is that students who have studied in Australian universities are very successful in finding jobs in Pakistan in top level companies or even in setting up new business. The acquired skills and knowledge are also useful in making their existing businesses flourish to a much greater level.
This is one of the most important aspects of my preference of choosing Australia because I plan to join my family business when I will come back to my homeland or even if want to go for a job, along with a strong educational background this study will help me in making a difference in my professional life.
I hope that you will acknowledge my interests and will give me chance to study in a quality institution.
Sample No. 2
There are many reasons for which I have chosen United Kingdom to come for my higher studies. I did my FSc in Computer Science from Municipal degree college Faisalabad and I have got good marks in my previous results. I always take keen interest in my studies and I believe myself so I wand to spent my educational activities in a top class environment to satisfy my inner educational needs. These are the factors for which I decided to go for my study in UK.
The reasons for choosing South Thames College are so many. Its education is of high quality. It is located in Europe and especially in London. It offers my desired business program. I am fulfilling its minimum requirement for admission. It also offers an academic, social and cultural experience of the finest quality.
I have a special interest in English language. I love to live in an English speaking environment. There are 60 million people speaking English. The British educational system has a very good reputation. I have strong belief that I will prove myself to be a better at your College. I will be grateful if you please consider my application to study at your esteemed institute.
Sample No. 3
I have passed my MSc. Computer Science degree from University College of Information Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. There were nineteen subjects consisting of seventy-two credit hours. I did course projects during the two years of study individually as well as in a group which created in me self-confidence as well as ability to work in team environment. My final project was Management Information System of a private company. Basically, I was interested in developing business applications because I did bachelors in commerce subjects. My knowledge of business and commerce as well as growing importance of computer technology in business and industry incited me to choose computer science as final field of study.
I have still great thirst for more education. My aims are to do a PhD in Computer Science. I know that according to the rules and regulations of Universities of Sweden I have to readmit and complete Masters program first and then apply again for the PhD in Computer Science if I fulfill the rules and regulations of the Swedish Government and its Educational Institutions. So I am applying for the same and I believe that this Masters program would polish my skills more and would enable me to get start PhD accordingly.
Sweden is education friendly country and promoting higher education in every possible manner without discrimination of race, gender and religion. Sweden has one of Europe�s most comprehensive quality education systems. The OECD puts Sweden among the world�s top investors in education. Investment has helped produce a vibrant, creative and student-centered system, one in which much of the work is left to the student�s own initiative. Though often demanding, such a system with its lack of rigid scheduling is also highly stimulating as it encourages students to develop a critical mind and an independent approach � two highly sought attributes in today�s knowledge-based employment market. Few of my friends are already studying in Swedish Universities and they admire the high standard of education and their amicable culture. These are the reasons for which I choose Sweden for my higher education.
In Pakistan, while getting a reasonable job any foreign qualified person is always preferred and paid well. Also Pakistan is in a desperate need for foreign qualified persons and their skills for its development. So in future when I�ll return I am sure to get a good position to serve my country.
Sample No. 4
If we look around in the world of Science, there are many potentials to be explored and challenges to be faced. New inventions are to be made in Bio Technology for memory or DNA analysis etc. Similarly in the field of VLSI design, energy consumption and time saving are the issues that need continuous concentration of minds in order to achieve the best.
To be more specific, for video transmission in wireless media, efficient use of bandwidth needs good compression techniques along with an efficient and energy saving VLSI design to achieve fast, errorless and smooth video communication within the limited bandwidth.
My mission is to develop an efficient video compression technique for mobile applications along with the VLSI circuit design that will be capable of performing video transmission with low energy consumption, less bandwidth requirement and efficient error checking.
I have B.Sc. Electrical Engineer degree from University of Engineering & Technology Taxila (one of the best Engineering University of Pakistan) with majors of Electronics & Communication. During studies, the courses of Micro Electronics, Digital Signal Processing and Advance Programming Languages (C++ & Verilog HDL) boosted my knowledge and skills. My major project on wireless transmission of video data broadened my concepts of video compression techniques and video streaming being used for wireless networks.
Here is the summary of my project:
Wireless Transmission of Video Data
� Compression and streaming of Video data using 264H/AVC compression technique
� Mobile Internet
� Middleware Technique
� Mobile Internet Protocoles (MICP, HTTPc etc.)
� Mobile Operating Systems (Win C etc.)
� Design of Java based client for video streaming on mobile
Digital circuits design of Microelectronics and RISC Architecture enabled me to bring my skills of innovation to a level where I could solve the complex design problems and develop efficient architecture based on RISC processor and circuit design that were capable of performing important functionalities. Following are some projects, which polished my potential of creativity.
� Design and Implementation of 32-bit RISC Processor using Verilog HDL
� Design of MIPS architecture with 12 Basic operations, 32-Bit Registers (32)
� Verilog Code and tested by Veriwell Simulation
� Design of Multiplier and Divider Circuit in Verilog HDL
� 32-Bit Multiplication & Division Codes in verilog
� 3rd Algorithm for Multiplier & Divider
� Booth Algorithm for signed multiplication
� Digital Electronic design in Verilog HDL
� Serial Pattern Detectors
� Parity Generators
� Priority Encoders
Along with above-mentioned skills, I have good programming skills in languages such as C, C++, RISC Assembly & Java. I am capable of working in both DOS and WINDOWS environments and I have good knowledge of Network Technologies and Objects Oriented Analysis & Design.
I think it is the time for me to go beyond the horizons and acquire knowledge of highest level. The well-qualified and experienced faculty, excellent laboratory facilities, exceptional research work and the inspiration given to students at your university would provide me an ideal platform for achieving my goals.
I hope that you will acknowledge my interests in acquiring the knowledge and doing PhD. and related research work under your kind supervision. I assure you that you will find me a very hardworking and result-oriented researcher who will build a high pillar of innovation and creativity on the strong foundation of knowledge at your university.
Sample No. 5
The course �BA (Hons) Business Management� which I have chosen to study is not being widely offered by the universities in Pakistan, and to be in United Kingdom means it will better enhance my leadership skills which are main to my course of business studies and better polish my skills in the most competitive, creative and practical environment. There is a wide mixture of cultures in the UK and there are foreign communities from most parts of the world, which means that I can learn how to live and compete in diverse culture. In UK there is freedom; people usually feel free to express their own opinions and to do what they want. There is creative environment; individual's ideas are encouraged. UK is where the English Language developed. There are more people using English as their first language in the UK than in any other country except the US. In United Kingdom there are 60 million people speaking English it means that I can easily communicate and study there.
UK is a relatively safe country; police do not usually carry guns, and there are strict controls on the ownership of weapons. The British educational system has a good reputation. Accredited qualifications obtained from British schools and universities are recognized in most parts of the world. There are courses in a wide variety of subjects, including many which are open to international students, which compel me to choose to study in UK. There is wide variety of food available (both traditional British food and international cuisine) especially in the bigger cities which means I can get what I want to eat.
The British weather is quite moderate. In general the summers are not too hot, and the winters are not too cold. The weather is pleasant enough for studying or working, especially between the spring and autumn.
Studying in UK will help me to build skills such as creative thinking, being able to work on my own initiative and strong teamwork and communication skills. British degrees are highly regarded by employers as they have a strong emphasis on practical experience whether this is in laboratory work, research projects, or case studies. Furthermore, admission into university is competitive and class sizes are restricted to ensure that all students have sufficient access to equipment that leads to better graduate outcome.
At the end I hope you will issue admission letter/visa so that I could continue my study in a world-class environment and to accomplish my dreams.
For these reasons I have chosen Newcastle College because it fulfills all of my requirements and I am also fulfilling all of its minimum requirement for admission.
Thanks a lot.
Sample No. 6
Thank you very much for providing me the opportunity to express my feelings regarding my higher study in United Kingdom and studying there for my further education. Coming to UK for higher studies means guaranteeing my future, the stability and the prosperity. The facilities and conducive atmosphere of United Kingdom will help me to enhance my skills in a better way and will lead me towards a bright future. I believe after studying in United Kingdom many multinational companies will be pleased to give me job place easily. So as recommended by my teachers, my parents and keeping in mind all the above factors UK is the best place for me to do my higher study. I believe that I will have a place in your esteemed organization and it will be an honor for me to continue my study in UK.
During my previous study I always got excellent grades and I always have keen interest in my study and I believe in myself. For these reasons I have chosen Kingston University because it fulfills all of my requirements and I am also fulfilling all of its minimum requirement for admission. I do hope that I shall be accepted for admission.
Helping notes for writing your own personal statement
This article is about the country. For other uses, see Pakistan (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 30°N70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70
|Islamic Republic of Pakistan|
اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان (Urdu)
Motto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam
Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled region shown in light green
33°40′N73°10′E / 33.667°N 73.167°E / 33.667; 73.167
24°51′36″N67°00′36″E / 24.86000°N 67.01000°E / 24.86000; 67.01000
|Recognised regional languages|
|Ethnic groups(2016)||44.68% Punjabis|
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional republic|
• Prime Minister
|Shahid Khaqan Abbasi|
• Chairman of the Senate
• Speaker of the Assembly
|Sardar Ayaz Sadiq|
• Chief Justice
|Mian Saqib Nisar|
• Upper house
• Lower house
|Independence from the United Kingdom|
|14 August 1947|
• Islamic Republic
|23 March 1956|
• Current constitution
|14 August 1973|
|881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi)[a] (33rd)|
• Water (%)
• 2017 census
|244.4/km2 (633.0/sq mi) (56th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|$1.060 trillion (25th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|$304.4 billion (42nd)|
• Per capita
|$1,629  (145th)|
|HDI (2015)|| 0.550|
medium · 147th
|Currency||Pakistani rupee (₨) (PKR)|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||PK|
Pakistan[b] (Urdu: پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia and crossroads of Middle East and Central Asia. It is the fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 209,970,000 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.
The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures, including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze AgeIndus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans, and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Gupta Empire, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire (partially), and, most recently, the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the subcontinent's struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent homeland for Indian Muslims. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similarly diverse geography and wildlife. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973 Pakistan adopted a new constitution establishing, alongside its pre-existing parliamentary republic status, a federal government based in Islamabad consisting of four provinces and four federal territories. The new constitution also stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah.
A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector. The Pakistani economy is the 24th-largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and the 41st-largest in terms of nominal GDP (World Bank). It is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, terrorism, poverty, illiteracy, and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Economic Cooperation Organisation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the Developing Eight, and the G20 developing nations, Group of 24, Group of 77, and ECOSOC. It is also an associate member of CERN. Pakistan is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
The name Pakistan literally means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Persian and Pashto. The suffix ـستان (-stān) is a Persian word meaning the place of, and also recalls the synonymous (and cognate) Sanskrit word sthānaस्थान.
The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym ("thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN") referring to the names of the five northern regions of the British Raj: Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan. The letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation.
Main article: History of Pakistan
See also: Outline of South Asian history
Early and medieval age
Main articles: Indus Valley Civilization, Vedic Civilization, Mauryan Empire, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Gupta Empire, Pala Empire, Sikh Empire, and Mughal Empire
Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan. The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation (2,800–1,800 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.
The Vedic Civilisation (1500–500 BCE), characterised by Indo-Aryan culture, during this period the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed and this culture later became well established in the region.Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre. The Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, which was founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire (around 519 BCE), Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE. The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria (180–165 BCE) included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander (165–150 BCE), prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region. Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, which was established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis. The ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was also recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE.
At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty (489–632 CE) of Sindh ruled this region and the surrounding territories. The Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, which, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan.
The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE. The Pakistan government's official chronology claims this as the time when the foundation of Pakistan was laid but the concept of Pakistan came in 19th century.The Early Medieval period (642–1219 CE) witnessed the spread of Islam in the region. During this period, Sufimissionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam. These developments set the stage for the rule of several successive Muslim empires in the region, including the Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187 CE), the Ghorid Kingdom, and the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE). The Lodi dynasty, the last of the Delhi Sultanate, was replaced by the Mughal Empire (1526–1857 CE).
The Mughals introduced Persian literature and high culture, establishing the roots of Indo-Persian culture in the region. From the region of modern-day Pakistan, key cities during the Mughal rule were Lahore and Thatta, both of which were chosen as the site of impressive Mughal buildings. In the early 16th century, the region remained under the Mughal Empire ruled by Muslim emperors. By the early 18th century, increasing European influence contributed to the slow disintegration of the empire as the lines between commercial and political dominance became increasingly blurred.
During this time, the English East India Company had established coastal outposts. Control over the seas, greater resources, technology, and British military protection led the Company to increasingly flex its military muscle, allowing the Company to gain control over the subcontinent by 1765 and sideline European competitors. Expanding access beyond Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of region by the 1820s. Many historians see this as the start of the region's colonial period. By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the Company began more deliberately to enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture. Such reforms included the enforcement of the English Education Act in 1835 and the introduction of the Indian Civil Service (ICS). Traditional madrasahs—primary institutions of higher learning for Muslims in the subcontinent—were no longer supported by the English Crown, and nearly all of the madrasahs lost their financial endowment.
Main articles: Aligarh Movement and British Raj
The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century enabled the Sikh Empire to control larger areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over the Indian subcontinent. A rebellion in 1857 called the Sepoy mutiny was the region's major armed struggle against the British Empire and Queen Victoria. Divergence in the relationship between Hinduism and Islam created a major rift in British India that led to racially motivated religious violence in India. The language controversy further escalated the tensions between Hindus and Muslims. The Hindu renaissance witnessed an awakening of intellectualism in traditional Hinduism and saw the emergence of more assertive influence in the social and political spheres in British India. An intellectual movement to counter the Hindu renaissance was led by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, who helped found the All-India Muslim League in 1901 and envisioned, as well as advocated for, the two-nation theory. In contrast to the Indian Congress's anti-British efforts, the Muslim League was a pro-British movement whose political program inherited the British values that would shape Pakistan's future civil society. In events during World War I, British Intelligence foiled an anti-Englishconspiracy involving the nexus of Congress and the German Empire. The largely non-violent independence struggle led by the Indian Congress engaged millions of protesters in mass campaigns of civil disobedience in the 1920s and 1930s against the British Empire.
The Muslim League slowly rose to mass popularity in the 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of Muslims in politics. In his presidential address of 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal called for "the amalgamation of North-West Muslim-majority Indian states" consisting of Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh, and Balochistan. The perceived neglect of muslim interests by Congress led provincial governments during the period of 1937–39 convinced Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan to espouse the two-nation theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940, popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution. In World War II, Jinnah and British-educatedfounding fathers in the Muslim League supported the United Kingdom's war efforts, countering opposition against it whilst working towards Sir Syed's vision.
Main articles: History of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Pakistan Movement, and Partition of India
The 1946 elections resulted in the Muslim League winning 90 percent of the seats reserved for Muslims. Thus, the 1946 election was effectively a plebiscite in which the Indian Muslims were to vote on the creation of Pakistan, a plebiscite won by the Muslim League. This victory was assisted by the support given to the Muslim League by the support of the landowners of Sindh and Punjab. The Congress, which initially denied the Muslim League's claim of being the sole representative of Indian Muslims, was now forced to recognise the fact. The British had no alternative except to take Jinnah's views into account as he had emerged as the sole spokesperson of India's Muslims. However, the British did not want India to be partitioned, and in one last effort to prevent it they devised the Cabinet Mission plan.
As the cabinet mission failed, the British government announced its intention to end the British Raj in India in 1946–47.Nationalists in British India—including Jawaharlal Nehru and Abul Kalam Azad of Congress, Jinnah of the All-India Muslim League, and Master Tara Singh representing the Sikhs—agreed to the proposed terms of transfer of power and independence in June 1947 with the Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten of Burma. As the United Kingdom agreed to the partitioning of India in 1947, the modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947(27th of Ramadan in 1366 of the Islamic Calendar), amalgamating the Muslim-majority eastern and northwestern regions of British India. It comprised the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab, and Sindh.
In the riots that accompanied the partition in Punjab Province, it is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people were killed in what some have described as a retributive genocide between the religions while 50,000 Muslim women were abducted and raped by Hindu and Sikh men and 33,000 Hindu and Sikh women also experienced the same fate at the hands of Muslims. Around 6.5 million Muslims moved from India to West Pakistan and 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved from West Pakistan to India. It was the largest mass migration in human history. Dispute over Jammu and Kashmir led to the First Kashmir War in 1948.
Independence and modern Pakistan
Main articles: Dominion of Pakistan and History of Pakistan
"You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place or worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the State."
After independence in 1947, Jinnah, the President of the Muslim League, became the nation's first Governor-General as well as the first President-Speaker of the Parliament, but he died of tuberculosis on 11 September 1948. Meanwhile, Pakistan's founding fathers agreed to appoint Liaquat Ali Khan, the secretary-general of the party, the nation's firstPrime Minister. With dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations, independent Pakistan had two British monarchs before it became a republic.
The creation of Pakistan was never fully accepted by many British leaders, among them Lord Mountbatten. Mountbatten clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League's idea of Pakistan. Jinnah refused Mountbatten's offer to serve as Governor-General of Pakistan. When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged Pakistan had he known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, he replied 'most probably'.
Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, a respected Deobandi alim (scholar) who occupied the position of Shaykh al-Islam in Pakistan in 1949, and Maulana Mawdudi of Jamaat-i-Islami played a pivotal role in the demand for an Islamic constitution. Mawdudi demanded that the Constituent Assembly make an explicit declaration affirming the "supreme sovereignty of God" and the supremacy of the shariah in Pakistan.
A significant result of the efforts of the Jamaat-i-Islami and the ulama was the passage of the Objectives Resolution in March 1949. The Objectives Resolution, which Liaquat Ali Khan called the second most important step in Pakistan's history, declared that "sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to God Almighty alone and the authority which He has delegated to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust". The Objectives Resolution has been incorporated as a preamble to the constitutions of 1956, 1962, and 1973.
Democracy was stalled by the martial law that had been enforced by President Iskander Mirza, who was replaced by army chief, General Ayub Khan. After adopting a presidential system in 1962, the country experienced exceptional growth until a second war with India in 1965 that led to an economic downturn and wide-scale public disapproval in 1967.Consolidating control from Ayub Khan in 1969, President Yahya Khan had to deal with a devastating cyclone that caused 500,000 deaths in East Pakistan.
In 1970 Pakistan held its first democratic elections since independence, meant to mark a transition from military rule to democracy, but after the East Pakistani Awami League won against the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), Yahya Khan and the military establishment refused to hand over power.Operation Searchlight, a military crackdown on the Bengali nationalist movement, led to a declaration of independence and the waging of a war of liberation by the Bengali Mukti Bahini forces in East Pakistan. However, in West Pakistan the conflict was described as a civil war as opposed to a war of liberation.
Independent researchers estimate that between 300,000 and 500,000 civilians died during this period while the Bangladesh government puts the number of dead at three million, a figure that is now nearly universally regarded as excessively inflated. Some academics such as Rudolph Rummel and Rounaq Jahan say both sides committed genocide; others such as Richard Sisson and Leo E. Rose believe there was no genocide. In response to India's support for the insurgency in East Pakistan, preemptive strikes on India by Pakistan's air force, navy