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18 Hour Chick Embryo Descriptive Essay

In this article we will discuss about the development stage of chick embryo, fertilized eggs are procured from recognised poultry farm and incubated in the laboratory.

1. Chick: M. 4 Hours of Incubation:

1. Four hours after incubation of the egg shows differentiation of the blastodisc into area pellucida and area opaca. (Fig. 7).

2. One quadrant of area pelluciada becomes thickened, which marks the future caudal end of embryo.

3. After 7 to 8 hours, the thickening becomes more elongated and represented start of primitive streak.

2. Chick: W.M. 16 Hours Embryo:

Comments:

1. 16 hours after incubation the primitive streak becomes so distinct that embryos are characterized as being in primitive streak stage. (Fig. 8).

2. In fixed and stained slide, w.m. is composed of central furrow, called as primitive groove lined by thickened primitive ridges.

3. At the cephalic end of the primitive streak, closely-packed cells form thickened area, called as Hensen’s node. Part of area pellucida adjacent to the primitive streak shows increased thickness and forms embryonic elliptical shape.

4. Area pellucida assumes elliptical shape.

5. Elongated primitive streak represents long axis of future embryonic body.

6. Caudal end of the streak is that which lies close to the area opaca.

3. W.M. 18 Hours Chick Embryo:

1. It is a W.M. of 18 hours stage of chick embryo.

2. At this stage the dark peripheral area opaca and central translucent area pellucida are distinctly visible.

3. In the anterior part is present the pro-amnion, which is a small and comparatively more translucent region of area pellucida and is characterised by the absence of mesoderm.

4. In the middle of area pellucida, in the posterior half, runs a primitive streak having a primitive groove through its centre. The primitive groove is being bound by primitive folds.

5. In the anterior half of area pellucida, in the middle, runs a neural groove bound by neural folds.

6. The primitive streak and neural groove is separated by a thickening-the Hensen’s node having a small depression in the centre-the Hensen’s pit.

7. The primitive streak gives rise to an out-growth, the notochord immediately below the primitive groove.

4. W.M. of 21 Hours Chick Embryo:

1. It is a W.M. of 21 hours chick embryo.

2. At this stage the dark peripheral area opaca and central translucent and colourless area pellucida are distinctly visible.

3. In the anterior part are present the pro-anmnion, which is a small and comparatively more translucent region of area pellucida and is characterised by the absence of mesoderm.

4. In the middle of area pellucida, in the posterior half, runs a primitive streak having a primitive groove through its centre. The primitive groove is being bound by primitive folds.

5. In the anterior half of area pellucida, in the middle, runs a neural groove bound by neural folds.

6. The primitive streak and neural groove are separated by a thickening, the Hensen’s nod having a small depression in the centre of the Hensen’s pit.

7. The primitive streak gives rise to a small outgrowth, the notochord immediately below the primitive groove and to mesoderm on either side.

8. At this stage embryonic and extra ambryonic regions have also become distinguished in the area pellucida.

9. In the anterior most part the ectoderm has given rise to head fold, which is a pocket-like extension of neural folds.

10. With the ectoderm the underlying endoderm is also transformed into a pocket-like structure the -foregut.

11. The proambion is comparatively reduced in size.

5. W.M. of 24 Hours or 4 Pairs of Somites Stage of Chick Embryo:

1. It is a W.M. of 24 hours 4 pairs of somites stage of chick embryo.

2. At this stage the dark peripheral area opaca and central translucent and colourless area pellucida are distinctly visible.

3. In the anterior part is present the proamnion, which is a small and comparatively more translucent region of area pellucida and is characterised by the absence of mesoderm.

4. In the middle of area pellucida, in its posterior half runs a primitive streak with a primitive groove in its centre. The primitive groove is bound by primitive folds.

5. In the anterior half of area pellucida, in the middle, runs the neural groove bound by neural folds.

6. The primitive streak and neural groove are separated by Hensen’s node having a small depression in the centre-the Hensen’s pit.

7. Immediately below the primitive groove the primitive streak gives rise to a small out- growth, the notochord and on either side to mesoderm.

8. In the area pellucida embryonic and extra embryonic regions also become distinguished.

9. In the anterior- most part the ectoderm has given rise to head fold, which is a pocket-like extension of neural folds. The underlying endoderm is also transformed into a pocket-like foregut. The proamnion is greatly reduced.

10. In front of Hensen’s node the mesoderm of embryonic area differentiated into 3-4 pairs of mesodermal somites.

11. The neural canal, in the region of head fold, gives rise to forebrain.

12. The foregut extends on either side into an amino-cardiac vesicle.

6. W.M. of 30 Hours of 8-10 Pairs of Somites Chick Embryo:

1. It is W.M. of 30 hours of chick embryo or 8-10 pairs of somite stage of chick embryo.

2. At this stage the dark peripheral area opaca and central translucent and clourless area pellucida are distinctly visible.

3. In the anterior part is present the proamnion, which is a small and comparatively more translucent region of area pellucida and is characterised by the absence of mesoderm.

4. In the middle of area pellucida, in the posterior half, runs a primitive streak with a primitive groove running through its centre. The primitive groove is bound by primitive folds.

5. In the anterior half of area pellucida, in the middle, runs the neural groove bound by neural folds.

6. The primitive streak and neural groove are separated by Hensen’s node having a small Hensen’s pit in the centre.

7. Immediately below primitive groove the primitive streak gives rise to the notochord and on either side to mesoderm.

8. At this stage embryonic and extra embryonic regions have also become distinguished in the area pellucida.

9. In the anterior-most part, the ectoderm has given rise to head fold which is a pocket like extention of neural folds. The underlying endoderm has transformed into pocket like foregut. The proamnion is reduced.

10. The mesoderm, in front of Hensen’s node, has given rise to 8-10 pairs of somites.

11. In the region of head fold the anterior part of neural canal has given rise to a distinct fore brain.

12. The foregut and cardiac vesicles are sufficiently developed.

13. The extra embryonic area has grown in size.

7. W. M. of 33 Hour Chick Embryo of 11-12 Pairs Somites:

1. It is W.M. of 33 hours chick embryo.

2. At this stage the dark peripheral area opaca and central translucent area pellucida are not distinctly visible.

3. The primitive streak has been comparatively reduced because of great lengthening of neural canal and neural folds.

4. The extra embryonic area has grown in size.

5. The mesoderm, in front of Hensen’s node, has given rise to 11-12 pairs of somites.

6. The foregut and cardiac vesicles are sufficiently developed.

7. The brain is differentiated into fore brain, mid- brain and hind brain.

8. The area opaca has changed into area vasculosa.

9. Proamnion has disappeared.

10. Anterior omphalomesenteric vein has developed.

8. W.M. of Chick Embryo of 13-14 Pairs Somites or 36 Hours:

1. It is W.M. of 36 hours chick embryo.

2. At this stage the dark peripheral area opaca and central translucent and colourless area pellucida are not visible.

3. The extra embryonic area has grown in size.

4. The primitive streak is comparatively reduced because of great lengthening of neural canal and neural folds. The notochord has extended from behind the brain up to the end of body.

5. The mesoderm, in front of Hensen’s node, has given rise to 13-14 pairs of somites.

6. The brain is differentiated into fore brain, mid brain and hind brain.

7. In the fore brain region optic vesicles and in the hind brain region optic vesicles have developed.

8. The area opaca has changed into area vasculosa.

9. Proamnion has disappeared.

10. Anterior omphalomesentric vein and vitelline artery have developed.

11. The cardiac vesicle has given rise to heart.

9. W.M. of 48 Hours Chick Embryo of 26-28 Pairs of Somites:

1. It is W.M. of 48 hours chick embryo.

2. At this stage the area opaca and area pellucida are not visible.

3. The extra embryonic area has grown in size.

4. Primitive streak has disappeared.

5. The mesoderm, in front of Hensen’s node, has given rise to 26-28 pairs of somites.

6. The brain has differentiated into telencephalon, prosencephalon, mesencephalon, metancephalon and mylencephalon.

7. The heart has been differentiated into ventricle and atrium. Sinus venosus and truncusarteriosus have also started developing.

8. The eye has been differentiated into optic cup and lens and optic vesicle has also developed sufficiently.

9. The head region has curved on right side due to cranial flexion.

10. Three pharyngeal gill-slits have also been differentiated.

11. Behind Hensen’ node a tail bud has also developed.

12. Lateral amniotic folds, anterior omphalomesentric vein and vitelline artery have appeared.

10. W.M. of 72 Hours or 36 Pairs of Somites Stage of Chick Embryo:

1. It is W.M. of 72 hours chick embryo.

2. At this stage area opaca and area pellucida are not visible.

3. The extra embryonic area has grown in size.

4. Primitive streak has disappeared.

5. The mesoderm, in front of Hensen’s node, has given rise to 36 pairs of somites.

6. The brain has differentiated into telencephalon, mesencephalon, metancephalon and mylencephalon.

7. The heart has been differentiated into ventricle and atrium.

8. The eye has differentiated into optic cup and lens and optic vesicle has also developed sufficiently.

9. The head region has bent on right side due to cranial flexion.

10. Four pairs of gill-slits have been differentiated.

11. Tail bud is greatly developed and has given rise to allentoic stalk and tail.

12. Lateral amniotic folds, vitelline artery and anterior omphalomesentric vein have developed.

13. In the middle region a pair of fore limb buds and in front of tail a pair of hind limb buds have developed, which will give rise to fore and hind limbs.

14. Olfactory pit, visceral arches, amnion, allantois and amniotic cavity have also developed.

11. W.M. of 96 Hours Chick Embryo:

1. In the chick embryo of 96-hours of incubation, the entire body has been turned through 90 degree and the embryo lies with its left side on the yolk.

2. At the end of 96 hours the body folds have undercut the embryo so that it remains attached to the yolk only by a slender stalk.

3. The yolk salk soon become enclogated, allowing the embryo to become first straight in the mid-dorsal region and then convex dorsally.

4. The progressive increase in the cranial, cervical, dorsal and caudal flexures results in the bending of the embryo on itself so that its originally straight long axis becomes C-shaped and its head and tail lie close together.

5. Optic cup shows the more developed lens.

6. Endo-lymphatic duct arises from the auditory vesicle.

7. Visceral arches have become very much thickened.

8. Appendage buds increase rapidly in size and become elongated.

9. The number of somites increases to 41 pairs.

10. Allantois has also appeared.

11. Omphalomesenteric artery and omphalomesenteric vein are also developed.

Introduction

Viktor Hamburger (1900 – 2001)

Hamburger & Hamilton staged the chicken embryo in 1951.[1] The original paper had approx 25 citations between 1955 - 59, while in the year 1991 alone there were over 300 citations. Series of Embryonic Chicken Growth. J. Morphology, 88 49 - 92 (1951). Atlas recently republished by J.R. Sanes in Developmental Dynamics 195 229-275 (1992). There was also an earlier Witschi staging though the Hamburger Hamilton Stages most commonly currently used.

Franz Keibel (1861 - 1929)

An even older 1900 staging[2] in the Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere - Gallus domestics (Normal Plates of the Development of the Chicken Embryo by Franz Keibel and Karl Abraham. This was part of a series of embryo stagings in different species designed by Franz Keibel.


See also the 1910 description of chicken somitogenesis staging.[3]

The table overview below describes feature of the chicken that can be seen at specific times (mean of a range) after fertilization, see Hamburger Hamilton Stages page for complete details and stage images. Some of the stages can be clicked to see sample embryo pictures on another page. There is also a stage comparison with the alternative universal Witschi staging.

Avian Incubation Periods  
Bird Days
Budgerigar 18
Chicken 21
Duck 28
Finch 14
Goose 28
Guinea fowl 28
Muscovy duck 35
Parrot 26
Pheasant 24
Pigeon 18
Quail 16
Swan 35
Turkey 28

Hamburger Hamilton Stages

Hamburger Hamilton Stages

Hamburger Hamilton Stages
Age
Identification of Stages
Links
Before Laying
Early cleavage
3.5 - 4.5 hr Shell membrane of egg formed in isthmus of oviduct
During cleavage
Germ wall formed from marginal periblast
Late cleavage
4.5 - 24.0 hr Shell of egg formed in uterus
After Laying
1
Preprimitive streak (embryonic shield)
2
6 - 7 hr Initial primitive streak, 0.3-0.5 mm long Gastrulation
3
12 - 13 hr Intermediate primitive streak
4
18 - 19 hr Definitive primitive streak, 1.88 mm long Gastrulation
5
19 - 22 hr Head process (notochord)
6
23 - 25 hr Head fold
7
23 - 26 hr 1 somite; neural folds Somitogenesis
7 to 8-
ca. 23 - 26 hr 1-3 somites; coelom
8
26 - 29 hr 4 somites; blood islands
9
29-33 hr 7 somites; primary optic vesicles
9+ to 10-
ca. 33 hr 8-9 somites; anterior amniotic fold
10
33-38 hr 10 somites; 3 primary brain vesicles
11
40 - 45 hr 13 somites; 5 neuromeres of hindbrain
12
45 - 49 hr 16 somites; telencephalon Heart
13
48-52 hr 19 somites; atrioventricular canal
13+ to 14-
ca. 50 - 52 hr 20-21 somites; tail bud
14
50 - 53 hr 22 somites; trunk flexure; visceral arches I and II, clefts 1 and 2
14+ to 15-
ca. 50 - 54 hr 23 somites; premandibular head cavities
15
50 - 55 hr 24 - 27 somites; visceral arch III, cleft 3
16
51 - 56 hr 26 - 28 somites; wing bud; posterior amniotic fold; trigeminal ganglion (CN V) close lateral head ectoderm. Heart
17
52 - 64 hr 29-32 somites; leg bud; epiphysis
18
3 da 30 - 36 somites extending beyond level of leg bud; allantois
19
3.0 - 3.5 da 37 - 40 somites extending into tail; maxillary process
20
3.0 - 3.5 da 40 - 43 somites; rotation completed; eye pigment
21
3.5 da 43-44 somites; visceral arch IV, cleft 4 Heart
22
3.5 - 4.0 da Somites extend to tip of tail
23
4 da Dorsal contour from hindbrain to tail is a curved line
24
4.5 da Toe plate, eye primordium reaches optic cup stage.
25
4.5 - 5.0 da Elbow and knee joints Heart
26
5 da 1st 3 toes
27
5.0 - 5.5 da Beak
28
5.5 - 6.0 da 3 digits, 4 toes
29
6.0 - 6.5 da Rudiment of 5th toe
30
6.5 - 7.0 da Feather germs; scleral papillae; egg tooth
31
7.0 - 7.5 da Web between 1st and 2nd digits
32
7.5 da Anterior tip of mandible has reached beak
33
7.5 - 8.0 da Web on radial margin of wing and 1st digit
34
8 da Nictitating membrane
35
8.5 - 9.0 da Phalanges in toes
36
10 da Length of 3rd toe from tip to middle of metatarsal joint = 5.4±0.3mm; length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of bill = 2.5mm; primordium of comb; labial groove; uropygial gland
37
11 da Length of 3rd toe = 7.4±0.3mm; length of beak = 3.0 mm
38
12 da Length of 3rd toe = 8.4±0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.1 mm
39
13 da Length of 3rd toe = 9.8±0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.5 mm
40
14 da Length of beak = 4.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 12.7±0.5 mm
41
15 da Length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of upper bill = 4.5 mm; length of 3rd toe = 14.9±0.8 mm
42
16 da Length of beak = 4.8 mm; length of 3rd toe = 16.7±0.8 mm
43
17 da Length of beak = 5.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 18.6±0.8 mm
44
18 da Length of beak = 5.7 mm; length of 3rd toe = 20.4±0.8 mm
45
19 - 20 da Yolk sac half enclosed in body cavity; chorio-allantoic membrane contains less blood and is "sticky" in living embryo
46
20 - 21 da Newly-hatched chick

Standard Stage Comparison

Witschi Stages

Standard Stages (Witschi)
Hamburger Hamilton Stages
Age
Identification of Stages
Before Laying
3,4 Early cleavage 3.5-4.5 hr2 Shell membrane of egg formed in isthmus of oviduct
5,6 During cleavage Germ wall formed from marginal periblast
7 Late cleavage 4.5-24.0 hr2 Shell of egg formed in uterus
After Laying
8,9 1 Preprimitive streak (embryonic shield)
10 2 6-7 hr Initial primitive streak, 0.3-0.5 mm long
11 3 12-13 hr Intermediate primitive streak
12 4 18-19 hr Definitive primitive streak, ±1.88 mm long
13a 5 19-22 hr Head process (notochord)
13b 6 23-25 hr Head fold
14a 7 23-26 hr 1 somite; neural folds
14b 7 to 8- ca. 23-26 hr 1-3 somites; coelom
14c 8 26-29 hr 4 somites; blood islands
15a 9 29-33 hr 7 somites; primary optic vesicles
15b 9+ to 10- ca. 33 hr 8-9 somites; anterior amniotic fold
15c 10 33-38 hr 10 somites; 3 primary brain vesicles
16a 11 40-45 hr 13 somites; 5 neuromeres of hindbrain
16b 12 45-49 hr 16 somites; telencephalon
16c 13 48-52 hr 19 somites; atrioventricular canal
17a 13+ to 14- ca. 50-52 hr 20-21 somites; tail bud
17b 14 50-53 hr 22 somites; trunk flexure; visceral arches I and II, clefts 1 and 2
17c 14+ to 15- ca. 50-54 hr 23 somites; premandibular head cavities
17d 15 50-55 hr 24-27 somites; visceral arch III, cleft 3
18 16 51-56 hr 26-28 somites; wing bud; posterior amniotic fold
19 17 52-64 hr 29-32 somites; leg bud; epiphysis
20 18 3 da 30-36 somites extending beyond level of leg bud; allantois
21 19 3.0-3.5 da 37- 40 somites extending into tail; maxillary process
22 20 3.0-3.5 da 40-43 somites; rotation completed; eye pigment
23 21 3.5 da 43-44 somites; visceral arch IV, cleft 4
24 22 3.5-4.0 da Somites extend to tip of tail
25 23 4 da Dorsal contour from hindbrain to tail is a curved line
26 24 4.5 da Toe plate
27 25 4.5-5.0 da Elbow and knee joints
28 26 5 da 1st 3 toes
29 27 5.0-5.5 da Beak
30 28 5.5-6.0 da 3 digits, 4 toes
31 29 6.0-6.5 da Rudiment of 5th toe
32 30 6.5-7.0 da Feather germs; scleral papillae; egg tooth
33a 31 7.0-7.5 da Web between 1st and 2nd digits
33b 32 7.5 da Anterior tip of mandible has reached beak
34a 33 7.5-8.0 da Web on radial margin of wing and 1st digit
34b 34 8 da Nictitating membrane
34c 35 8.5-9.0 da Phalanges in toes
34d 36 10 da Length of 3rd toe from tip to middle of metatarsal joint = 5.4±0.3mm; length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of bill = 2.5mm; primordium of comb; labial groove; uropygial gland
34e 37 11 da Length of 3rd toe = 7.4±0.3mm; length of beak = 3.0 mm
34f 38 12 da Length of 3rd toe = 8.4±0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.1 mm
35a 39 13 da Length of 3rd toe = 9.8±0.3 mm; length of beak = 3.5 mm
35b 40 14 da Length of beak = 4.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 12.7±0.5 mm
35c 41 15 da Length of beak from anterior angle of nostril to tip of upper bill = 4.5 mm; length of 3rd toe = 14.9±0.8 mm
35d 42 16 da Length of beak = 4.8 mm; length of 3rd toe = 16.7±0.8 mm
35e 43 17 da Length of beak = 5.0 mm; length of 3rd toe = 18.6±0.8 mm
35f 44 18 da Length of beak = 5.7 mm; length of 3rd toe = 20.4±0.8 mm
36a 45 19-20 da Yolk sac half enclosed in body cavity; chorio-allantoic membrane contains less blood and is "sticky" in living embryo
36b 46 20-21 da Newly-hatched chick

Modified from: GROWTH Altman, P.L. and Dittmer, D.S. (ed) Biological Handbooks, FASEB (1962)

Images

  • HH20 head muscle MyoR and MyoD

References

Other Chicken Atlases

  • Vertebrate and Invertebrate Embryos (7th Edition) G.C. Schoenwolf, Prentice Hall, New Jersey
  • An Atlas of Embryology (1975) W.H. Freeman and B. Bracegirdle, Heinemann Educational Books, UK.
    • This is an ATLAS (no description of development) , asically reprinted from the original 1963 edition.
    • Photos with labelled diagrams covering Amphioxus (worm) Frog, Chicken.
  • Butler H. and Juurlink BHJ. An atlas for staging mammalian and chick embryos. (1987) CRC. Boca Raton, Florida.
    • This ATLAS is not a complete series of development but has interesting comparisons of species. Mostly photos of embryos with a few drawn diagrams and a series of staging correlation graphs.

Glossary Links

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2018, March 14) EmbryologyChicken stages. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Chicken_stages

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2018, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G
Hamburger & Hamilton Stage 11 (40-45 hr; 13 somites)

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