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Include Bibliography Word Crossword

A lively correspondence has continued on the theme of what words, people's names and cultural references it is fair to include in a Guardian crossword in the year 2009. One open-minded process engineer saw no objection to references to Paris, Hector and Lysander, though the classics had been no part of his education. In return, he felt that non-scientists ought to be expected to live with some quantum effects, black holes and dark matter.

One of the problems here, as in other areas of modern life, is that the body of what used to be labelled (and examined) as "general knowledge" has fragmented. Against that, I am regularly astonished by the evidence that so many non-native English speakers are grappling with and enjoying our crosswords, which I would have assumed were highly culture specific. One Frenchman recently sent in an almost correct entry to a Paul Genius puzzle that I had initially had difficulty deciphering even with the aide of the crib sheet that he had supplied to me.

One persistent myth that I would like to try to kill, however, is that TREE (in the guise of Sir Max Beerbohm Tree) still features regularly in Guardian crosswords. You can see why, with the two E's together and a short name that is also a plant, he was so useful to crossword setters for so long, but I think that the great actor-manager can now decently be allowed his rest. However, be warned: this is not yet the case with Miss Mae West, not only because the actor's combination of seven letters is beloved by setters, but also because her reputation as a wit and her record of willingness to fight (including serving a spell in prison) against censorship and prejudice deservedly live on.

On the general question as to whether our puzzles are too hard or too easy, I took much comfort from this in one email: "My daughter and I, when in the same house, can almost invariably complete the Guardian puzzle within fifteen minutes (including the time to make tea). When working alone, each of us takes rather longer and, indeed, might be quite stumped at times. This state of affairs, extant for more than ten years now (the younger woman at present being nearly 29), would seem to suggest that the clues are pitched to both my daughter's generation and my own."

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A number of you have found that the PDF version of each day's puzzles has been printing out at your end smaller than heretofore. I am told that the reason must be in your printer's relationship to what your computer is receiving from our end. There is no single piece of advice that I can give you as to how to cope with this problem, since what needs to be done will be different with Macs and non-Macs, with Java and non-Java and with all the possible variations in operating systems and software and from browser to browser. A general line of approach would be that, when you have clicked on 'File' and then on 'Print', you should be offered an option to scale the page on the printer setting screen. 115% seems to be about right on mine; but, if that does not work with you, could you ask subshelp@theguardian.com for further and better advice, indicating what systems you are using? They should be able to give you more specific advice.

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I was inhibited in responding to the flood of demands to know what was missing from Paul's prize crossword No 24,641 for 7 March, because for once nothing. However, to explain this in detail would have been to give the whole game away. The * at the end of several clues was not a cross-reference to something that we had forgotten to give you but a definition common to all the clues involved: namely that all the answers to these clues involved stars of one sort of another. I hope that, as time goes on, your first reaction to something unusual in a puzzle will not, with some justification, be that it must just be another mistake.

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Lavatch's March Genius was published late and, as a result, there was only one correct entry on the first day, from Ian of London N14 at 15.57. By the deadline, 160 of you had unlocked the Kafka code.

Before you can create a bibliography you need to have at least one citation and source in your document that will appear in your bibliography. If you don't have all of the information that you need about a source to create a complete citation, you can use a placeholder citation, and then complete the source information later.

For information about automatically formatting your bibliography in MLA, APA, and Chicago-style see: APA, MLA, Chicago: Automatically format bibliographies.

Note: Placeholder citations do not appear in the bibliography.

Add a new citation and source to a document

  1. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click the arrow next to Style.

  2. Click the style that you want to use for the citation and source. For example, social sciences documents usually use the MLA or APA styles for citations and sources.

  3. Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite.

  4. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Insert Citation.

  5. Do one of the following:

    • To add the source information, click Add New Source, then begin to fill in the source information by clicking the arrow next to Type of source. For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site.

    • To add a placeholder, so that you can create a citation and fill in the source information later, click Add New Placeholder. A question mark appears next to placeholder sources in Source Manager.

  6. Fill in the bibliography information for the source.

To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.

Now you can create your bibliography.

Notes:

  • If you choose a GOST or ISO 690 style for your sources and a citation is not unique, append an alphabetic character to the year. For example, a citation would appear as [Pasteur, 1848a].

  • If you choose ISO 690-Numerical Reference and your citations still don't appear consecutively, you must click the ISO 690 style again, and then press ENTER to correctly order the citations.

Add additional citations from a previously used source

You can easily access citations you added previously. In fact, you can reuse them throughout your document. It's simple.

  1. Place the cursor where you want to insert a citation, and click References > Insert Citation.

  2. Find the citation by the Author or Tag name, and select the citation.

    Tip: You can insert a placeholder if you need to look up a citation later. Click References > Insert Citation. Click Add New Placeholder, and create a unique Tag name. Find the Placeholder in your content, and click the text to Edit Source details.

Create a bibliography

Now that you’ve inserted one or more citations and sources in your document you can create your bibliography.

  1. Click where you want to insert a bibliography, usually at the end of the document.

  2. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Bibliography.

  3. Click a predesigned bibliography format to insert the bibliography into the document.

Find a source

The list of sources that you use can become quite long. At times you might search for a source that you cited in another document by using the Manage Sources command.

  1. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Manage Sources.

    If you open a new document that does not yet contain citations, all of the sources that you used in previous documents appear under Master List.

    If you open a document that includes citations, the sources for those citations appear under Current List. All the sources that you have cited, either in previous documents or in the current document, appear under Master List.

  2. To find a specific source, do one of the following:

    • In the sorting box, sort by author, title, citation tag name, or year, and then search the resulting list for the source that you want to find.

    • In the Search box, type the title or author for the source that you want to find. The list dynamically narrows to match your search term.

Note: You can click the Browse button in Source Manager to select another master list from which you can import new sources into your document. For example, you might connect to a file on a shared server, on a research colleague's computer or server, or on a Web site that is hosted by a university or research institution.

Edit a source

  1. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Manage Sources.

  2. In the Source Manager dialog box, under Master List or Current List, select the source you want to edit, and then click Edit.

    Note: To edit a placeholder to add citation information, select the placeholder from Current List and click Edit.

  3. In the Edit Source dialog box, make the changes you want and click OK.

Edit a citation placeholder

Occasionally, you may want to create a placeholder citation, and then wait until later to fill in the complete bibliography source information. Any changes that you make to a source are automatically reflected in the bibliography, if you have already created one. A question mark appears next to placeholder sources in Source Manager.

  1. On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group, click Manage Sources.

  2. Under Current List, click the placeholder that you want to edit.

    Note: Placeholder sources are alphabetized in Source Manager, along with all other sources, based on the placeholder tag name. By default, placeholder tag names contain the word Placeholder and a number, but you can customize the placeholder tag name with whatever tag you want.

  3. Click Edit.

  4. Begin to fill in the source information by clicking the arrow next to Type of source. For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site.

  5. Fill in the bibliography information for the source. To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.

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